European exploration and conquest

So, the first truly global trade flourished on addictive substances—alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and sugar.

European colonization of the Americas

In the Treaty of Tordesillasratified by the Pope, these two kingdoms divided the entire non-European world into two areas of exploration and colonization, with a north to south boundary that cut through the Atlantic Ocean and the eastern part of present-day Brazil.

From the 8th to the 11th century bands of Northmen, mainly Swedish, trading southeastward across the Russian plains, were active under the name of Varangians in the ports of the Black Sea. But Columbus and his fellow Europeans greatly miscalculated the circumference of the earth. Smith also understood how the Americas allowed Europeans to gradually dominate Asia.

Word of his discovery of new lands rapidly spread throughout Europe. This led to significant lower long distance shipping costs by the 14th century. How did the Crusades influence European colonization projects.

In the newly formed New Netherland Company obtained a grant from the Dutch government for the territory between New France and Virginia. Europe eventually found itself at the center of the global economic network, commanding large empires.

In a second voyage, from towhich in many ways was the greatest of the three, Cook searched systematically for the elusive continent that many still believed might exist.

Exploration of North America

Ancient tales described distant civilizations, usually to the west, where European-like peoples lived simple, virtuous lives without war, famine, disease, or poverty.

Two English seamen, Sir Francis Drake and Thomas Cavendishcircumnavigated the world from west to east in to and torespectively. As European powers conquered the territories of the New World, they justified wars against Native Americans and the destruction of their cultures as a fulfillment of the European secular and religious vision of the New World.

In England, many people came to question the organization of the Church of England by the end of the 16th century.

European exploration

InGiovanni da Verrazano was commissioned to locate a northwest passage around North America to India. The Darien Scheme aimed to control trade through that part of the world and thereby promote Scotland into a world trading power.

The Turning Point: European Conquests of the Americas (1492-1800)

New France was sparsely populated by trappers and missionaries and dotted with military forts and trading posts. The Dutch also planted trading colonies in the West Indies. He was followed in by Jacques Cartierwho explored the St. Herodotus prefaces his History written in the 5th century bce with a geographical description of the then known world: Parry, The Spanish Seaborne Empire ; 2nd ed.

The process of Christianization was at first violent: Venice specialized in luxury goods and slaves.

Motivation for European conquest of the New World

While, as in earlier centuries, traders and missionaries often proved themselves also to be intrepid explorers, in this period of geographical discovery the seeker after knowledge for its own sake played a greater part than ever before. European exploration of the African coast.

In Pope Nicholas V issued the bull Romanus Pontifex reinforcing the previous Dum Diversasgranting all lands and seas discovered beyond Cape Bojador to King Afonso V of Portugal and his successors, as well as trade and conquest against Muslims and pagans, initiating a mare clausum policy in the Atlantic.

Another explorer, the Australian John Oxleyin observed: At the same time, political centralization ended much of the squabbling and fighting among rival noble families and regions that had characterized the Middle Ages.

Initially, explorers and merchants hoped to find a sea route across the Atlantic to the thriving markets of Asia. Religious Motivations The impulse for exploration was further fueled by the European imagination.

The company, however, was not successful, and in the king took direct control of New France. Native Americans did not survive long under conditions of slavery and forced labor. The great southern continent, which Captain Cook demonstrated could not lie in the South Pacific, lay there neglected for some 50 years.

Age of Discovery

The Portuguese fought Muslim rulers to control the Indian Ocean and won. They probably reached the coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland; some think that the farthest point south reached by the settlers, as described in the sagas, fits best with Maryland or Virginiabut others contend that the lands about the Gulf of St.

He was a European Catholic priest traveled with Spanish explorers to give guidance and support during the European Exploration and Conquest ( ). Columbian Exchange The exchange of goods, animals, plants, diseases, and ideas between Europe, Africa, and North/ South America after European exploration.

Aug 11,  · Ten Minute History - The Early Spanish and Portuguese Empires (Short Documentary) - Duration: Ten Minute Historyviews. The conquest and settlement of the Americas is the key starting point for understanding the rise of European economic and imperial power.

Throughout the early modern era, Europeans struggled to compete with Asian manufactured products in a free market. Chapter European Exploration and Conquest, MP3 Chapter Summaries Listen to Chapter 15 (Houghton Mifflin Flash Player with closed captions) Before the s, virtually all slaves in Europe were white.

The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople cut off slaves from the Black Sea region. Start studying AP Euro Chapter European Exploration and Conquest. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

If you're getting ready to take a big exam or test, let our chapter on European conquest and exploration help. This chapter is made up of short.

European exploration and conquest
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European colonization of the Americas - Wikipedia