Imperialism and colonization

Ottoman wars in Europe Imperialism in ancient times is clear in the history of China and in the history of western Asia and the Mediterranean—an unending succession of empires. Under this doctrine, the French politician Jules Ferry could declare in that "Superior races have a right, because they have a duty.

Prussia unified the other states into the second German Empire in Exporting capital, he concluded, put a lid on the growth of domestic wages in the domestic standard of living. Egypt was overrun by British forces in although not formally declared a protectorate untiland never an actual colony ; SudanNigeriaKenya and Uganda were subjugated in the s and early 20th century; and in the south, the Cape Colony first acquired in provided a base for the subjugation of neighboring African states and the Dutch Afrikaner settlers who had left the Cape to avoid the British and then founded their own republics.

Already inthe Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre stated the thesis that the Portuguese as the oldest European colonial nation had a special gift for expansion in his controversial book Casa-grande e Senzala The Masters and the Slaves.

However, the Habsburg Empire was not centralistic but multinational in concept and tolerated local independence up to the confirmation of regional and religious diversity. While the direct penetration of North and South America was almost entirely completed, that of the Asian and African sphere only began on a larger scale after — in Africa, for example, after with the French conquest of Algeria, from which Morocco and Tunis were also to be brought under French influence.

Its Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck —90long opposed colonial acquisitions, arguing that the burden of obtaining, maintaining, and defending such possessions would outweigh any potential benefits.

Members of this specialized body would have the training to acquire relevant knowledge of local conditions. The protection of national economic interests or the defence of prestige later led several German observers to the conclusion that the English were conducting a commercial imperialism, whereas the French wanted to enhance the respect for their nation in the world.

The empires of the modern nation state were not exposed to a loss of unity associated with the global dimension.

Difference Between Colonialism and Imperialism

The European Colonial Empires —, Harlow Like colonialism, imperialism also involves political and economic control over a dependent territory. Long after the British formally colonized Igboland, they had not fully mastered the territory.

Though slavery and cosmopolitanism could theoretically not be brought to a common denominator, in practice the conquest explained its legitimacy since the 16th century with its own success.

Coming to the etymology, colony comes from the Latin word colonus, which means farmers. In a classic of the historiography of imperialism, Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher explain that Europe is not the only place for understanding the motives of European expansion.


The Spanish conquistadores and colonists explicitly justified their activities in the Americas in terms of a religious mission to bring Christianity to the native peoples. The technological factor was expressed in the radical disparity between the technologies of warfare deployed by the contending European and African forces.

For example, depictions of opulent American lifestyles in the soap opera Dallas during the Cold War changed the expectations of Romanians; a more recent example is the influence of smuggled South Korean drama series in North Korea. In other words, he emphasized that human beings all share similar desires to create workable rules of conduct that allow particular ways of life to flourish without themselves creating harsh injustices and cruelties.

In the case of imperialism, the state conquering completely takes the territory into their own territory or empire. Geopolitics now focuses on states becoming major economic players in the market; some states today are viewed as empires due to their political and economic authority over other nations.

So, the key point to understanding imperialism has to do with the emphasis on the idea of overtaking others based on power. Kleine Geschichte des Kolonialismus, Stuttgart Cultural imperialism is an extremely fuzzy concept, pointing to the supposed influence of one dominant culture over others, i.

However, no matter the system, they were all alien, authoritarian, and bureaucratic, and distorted African political and social organizations and undermined their moral authority and political legitimacy as governing structures.

Subsequently, British imperialism became even more unrivalled and the centrality of Europe in the world of the 19th century became even more clearly an economic, military and maritime centrality of Great Britain. Only the interaction of these two as well as numerous other factors resulted in the world historical consequences of European expansion.


The rise of anti-colonial political theory, however, required more than a universalistic ethic that recognized the shared humanity of all people. In the leading exponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry declared France had a civilising mission: Recent scholarship has also drawn attention to the writings of less canonical figures Bell In the 19th century, this would become a fixed topos of mutual accusations when businesses based on shares and founded on the model of the East India Company chartered inmonopoly toand comparable to the Dutch Vereenigden Oost-Indischen Compagnie —were raised by SwedenDenmarkScotlandAustriaBrandenburg-Prussia and Poland and were partly equipped with sovereign rights.

Their shared reference frame was the Atlantic world, which as a historical concept for determining colonial practices had gained acceptance. But unlike in earlier periods, a broad European public for the first time participated politically, economically and culturally directly in the process of that expansion.

African military resistance took two main forms: It can also raise the question whether European history between about and cannot be predominantly read as a history of expansion, especially if one treats the history of the empires beyond Eurocentrism as world history but without underlaying it with a universal theory and without constructing it as a historical unity.

The nineteenth century was a period of profound and even revolutionary changes in the political geography of Africa, characterized by the demise of old African kingdoms and empires and their reconfiguration into different political entities. For example, according to John Stuart Mill hereafter Millsavages do not have the capacity for self-government because of their excessive love of freedom.

Overall, Great Britain did very well in terms of profits from India, but not from most of the rest of its empire. Colonialism is the implanting of settlements on a distant territory.

Difference Between Colonialism and Imperialism

Colonialism in its modern form first began to take shape about years ago, and it changed the economic landscape of the world forever. Lenin (), Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism () Imperialism as an essential stage in the development of capitalism The internal contradictions of capitalism produced imperialism.

The Colonization of Africa

Imperialism often produces colonialism, and colonialism is an integral part of imperialism. Definitionally, imperialism means a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force. The Colonization of Africa Ehiedu E. G. Iweriebor – Hunter College.

Between the s andAfrica faced European imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressures, military invasions, and eventual conquest and colonization. Colonialism and imperialism are often used interchangeably, but they are two different words having different meaning.

As both colonialism and Imperialism means political and economic domination of the other, scholars often find it hard to differentiate the two.


Though both the words underline. Colonialism and imperialism are often used interchangeably, but they are two different words having different meaning.

As both colonialism and Imperialism means political and economic domination of the other, scholars often find it hard to differentiate the two. Though both the words underline.

Imperialism and colonization
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Scramble for Africa - Wikipedia